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The JCR shall publish anually to all undergraduate members of the College, and to the Council, a report stating the names of all external organisations to which it is affiliated and the details of any subscriptions or similar fee paid, and of any donation made or proposed to be made, to the organisations within the year covered by the report.

Upon the request of at least three percent of its members, the JCR shall submit for the approval of its members a list of the organisations to which the JCR is affiliated.

If at least five percent of the members so require, the question of continued affiliation to any particular organisation shall be decided upon by a secret ballot at which all members are entitled to vote.

No such ballot shall be held less than four calendar months after the previous ballot. Grievances Please see the Student Complaints procedure as detailed on the Intranet, or available from Tutors.

All undergraduate members of the College or groups of such members who are dissatisfied in their dealings with the JCR, or who claim to be unfairly disadvantaged by reason of having exercised the right not to be a member of the JCR, may prefer a complaint to the President of the JCR.

An appeal shall lie from the President of the JCR to a person appointed by the Council to serve for such period as the Council may determine, who may not delegate his or her responsbility for hearing the appeal.

The Council shall have power to provide such effective remedy if any as it considers appropriate when a complaint is upheld.

Undergraduate Rooms Tutorial permission is required only for parties and meetings to which more than 10 are invited.

Public Rooms Tutorial permission is required for all public rooms including those at Wolfson Court for either parties or dinners.

Catering You may not self-cater at parties in public rooms. Approval for events finishing at 1. Other Events Bonfire and Firework parties are not permitted Outdoor parties and College society meetings in the College grounds and the gardens of College Houses also require a pink permission slip, with an inside venue normally booked in case of rain.

No parties with music may be held during the Easter Term prior to and during examinations. Corridor parties are not permitted. House parties require the special permission of the Senior Tutor.

Societies Society meetings for which a room is booked need permission from the Senior Tutor. Code of Practice for Discipline in College Obedience to College Authorities All members of the College shall comply with instructions given in the discharge of their duties by College employees authorised to act on behalf of the College.

Obligation to identify oneself to College and other Authorities All members of the College shall state their names when asked to do so by all persons who are authorised to act on behalf of the College, by a Proctor, Pro-Proctor or other person in authority in the University, or, while on or near the premises of another College, by any person in authority in that College.

Drugs No member of the College shall have in his or her possession or supply to any other person any unauthorised drug.

Safety of Persons and Property No member of the College shall act in such a way as to cause unnecessary risk to the health or safety of any person on the premises of the College, or another College, or of the University, and no member of the College shall act in such a way as to cause unnecessary risk or damage to the property of any such person, or of the College, or of another College, or of the University.

Roof-climbing No member of the College shall climb onto the roofs or any other part of the fabric of the College or on to any scaffolding which may from time to time be erected on the College buildings.

Damage to Property No member of the College shall intentionally or recklessly damage or deface or knowingly misappropriate any property including computer-stored information of the College, of another College or of the University.

Occupation or use of Property No member of the College shall occupy or use any property including computer-stored information of the College, or another College, or of the University, except as authorised by the College concerned or by the University.

Disruption of meetings, etc. Freedom of Speech No member of the College shall impede or otherwise interfere with freedom of speech or lawful assembly within the College or elsewhere within the Precincts of the University.

Motor Vehicles No member of the College shall, without obtaining the authority of the Motor Proctor and displaying a College motor permit, bring or park any motor vehicle within the College grounds.

The Section also requires the College to issue and keep up to date a Code of Practice, to be followed by students, other members, and employees of the College about the organisation of meetings that are to be held on College premises, and about the conduct required of those persons in connection with meetings.

It is a paradoxical result that the recent legislation, the object of which is to safeguard freedom of speech, forces the College to institute a process of codification which must inevitably limit to some degree the freedom and and discretion of organisers of meetings, but the Council hopes that the Code of Practice has been framed in such a way as to minimise this effect.

The attention of members of the College is drawn to sections 8 and 9 of the Code of Practice for Discipline in College. Organisation of Meetings on College Premises Permission is required for all meetings and other activities including dinners, parties, and other entertainments to which speakers are invited, and for all other meetings at which more than ten persons are expected to be present, whether or not the meeting is open to the public.

Permission must be obtained from the Senior Tutor or in the case of conferences, from the Conference Manager in the case of a conference to be held in College, or Warden of Wolfson Court if the conference is to be held in Wolfson Court not less than seventy two hours beforehand.

The application for permission should state the name of the person taking responsibility for the meeting, the date and time of the meeting, the place, the name, addresses and colleges if any of the organisers, the name of the organisation making the arrangements, and name of any expected speakers, whether or not they are members of the University.

The organisers of a meeting to which parargraph 4 applies must comply with any conditions set by the appropriate College authority in respect of the organisation of the meeting or other activity and the arrangements to be made.

In extreme cases the College reserves the right to cancel a meeting on account of a threatened breach of the peace.

Conduct of Meetings on College Premises The organisers of any meeting on College premises, and of persons attending such meetings, must comply with instructions given by any person authorised to act on behalf of the College including the Proctors in the proper discharge of their duties.

The attention of members of the College is drawn to sections 1 and 2 of the Code of Practice for Discipline in College and to the rules governing meetings and parties.

The University The provisions of section 43 of the Education No. The College may invite the Proctors to enter its premises and authorise them to act in the discharge of their University duties.

All members of the University shall state their names and the Colleges to which they belong when asked by a Proctor or Pro-Proctor, or by any other person in authority in the University or in any of the Colleges in the University.

These secondary schools, formerly known as "technical colleges," were renamed "community colleges," but remain secondary schools. The country's only ancient university is the University of Dublin.

Created during the reign of Elizabeth I , it is modelled on the collegiate universities of Cambridge and Oxford.

However, only one constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of Trinity College Dublin today; although both are usually considered one and the same, the university and college are completely distinct corporate entities with separate and parallel governing structures.

Among more modern foundations, the National University of Ireland , founded in , consisted of constituent colleges and recognised colleges until The former are now referred to as constituent universities — institutions that are essentially universities in their own right.

The National University can trace its existence back to and the creation of the Queen's University of Ireland and the creation of the Catholic University of Ireland in From , the degree awarding roles of these two universities was taken over by the Royal University of Ireland , which remained until the creation of the National University in and Queen's University Belfast.

These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in in recognition of this.

Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the Institutes of Technology , which were established from the s as Regional Technical Colleges.

These institutions have delegated authority which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas from Quality and Qualifications Ireland QQI in their own names.

A number of private colleges exist such as Dublin Business School , providing undergraduate and postgraduate courses validated by QQI and in some cases by other universities.

Other types of college include colleges of education, such as the Church of Ireland College of Education. These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers.

A number of state-funded further education colleges exist — which offer vocational education and training in a range of areas from business studies and information and communications technology to sports injury therapy.

There are numerous private colleges particularly in Dublin and Limerick [ citation needed ] which offer both further and higher education qualifications.

In Israel, any non university higher-learning facility is called a college. There are also over twenty teacher training colleges or seminaries, most of which may award only a Bachelor of Education B.

Such schools are usually run by the Roman Catholic church or missionaries in Macau. HBO graduates can be awarded two titles, which are Baccalaureus bc.

At a WO institution, many more bachelor's and master's titles can be awarded. The PhD title is a research degree awarded upon completion and defense of a doctoral thesis.

The constituent colleges of the former University of New Zealand such as Canterbury University College have become independent universities. Some halls of residence associated with New Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at the University of Otago which although brought under the umbrella of the University of New Zealand, already possessed university status and degree awarding powers.

The institutions formerly known as "Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves "College of education". Some universities, such as the University of Canterbury , have divided their university into constituent administrative "Colleges" — the College of Arts containing departments that teach Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, College of Science containing Science departments, and so on.

This is largely modelled on the Cambridge model, discussed above. In some parts of the country, secondary school is often referred to as college and the term is used interchangeably with high school.

This sometimes confuses people from other parts of New Zealand. But in all parts of the country many secondary schools have "College" in their name, such as Rangitoto College , New Zealand's largest secondary.

A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but may have several component colleges, or departments. Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a hierarchical demarcation between the term "university", and quite a number of colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of improvement in academic standards Colegio de San Juan de Letran , San Beda College , and increase in the diversity of the offered degree programs called "courses".

For private colleges, this may be done through a survey and evaluation by the Commission on Higher Education and accrediting organizations, as was the case of Urios College which is now the Fr.

Saturnino Urios University. For state colleges, it is usually done by a legislation by the Congress or Senate.

In common usage, "going to college" simply means attending school for an undergraduate degree, whether it's from an institution recognized as a college or a university.

When it comes to referring to the level of education, college is the term more used to be synonymous to tertiary or higher education.

The term "college" in Singapore is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades 11—12 in the American system.

The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees.

Institutions offering diplomas are called " polytechnics ", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.

Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges.

These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to as "colleges".

Further education FE colleges and sixth form colleges are institutions providing further education to students over Some of these also provide higher education courses see below.

Eton College and Winchester College. In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic faculties or departments within a university.

Traditionally the distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers the same as some universities on behalf of its colleges, [26] and many of the colleges of the University of London holding full degree awarding powers and being effectively universities.

Most colleges, however, do not hold their own degree awarding powers and continue to offer higher education courses that are validated by universities or other institutions that can award degrees.

Overall, this means over two thirds of state-supported higher education providers in England are colleges of one form or another.

Colleges within universities vary immensely in their responsibilities. The large constituent colleges of the University of London are effectively universities in their own right; colleges in some universities, including those of the University of the Arts London and smaller colleges of the University of London , run their own degree courses but do not award degrees; those at the University of Roehampton provide accommodation and pastoral care as well as delivering the teaching on university courses; those at Oxford and Cambridge deliver some teaching on university courses as well as providing accommodation and pastoral care; and those in Durham , Kent , Lancaster and York provide accommodation and pastoral care but do not normally participate in formal teaching.

The legal status of these colleges also varies widely, with University of London colleges being independent corporations and recognised bodies, Oxbridge colleges, colleges of the University of the Highlands and Islands UHI and some Durham colleges being independent corporations and listed bodies, most Durham colleges being owned by the university but still listed bodies, and those of other collegiate universities not having formal recognition.

When applying for undergraduate courses through UCAS , University of London colleges are treated as independent providers, colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and UHI are treated as locations within the universities that can be selected by specifying a 'campus code' in addition to selecting the university, and colleges of other universities are not recognised.

A university college is an independent institution with the power to award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university status.

University College is a protected title that can only be used with permission, although note that University College London , University College, Oxford and University College, Durham are colleges within their respective universities and not university colleges in the case of UCL holding full degree awarding powers that set it above a university college , while University College Birmingham is a university in its own right and also not a university college.

In the United States, there are over colleges and universities. Americans "go to college" after high school , regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university.

Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education.

Students must pay for college before taking classes. Some borrow the money via loans, and some students fund their educations with cash, scholarships, grants, or some combination of these payment methods.

For state-owned schools called "public" universities , the subsidy was given to the college, with the student benefiting from lower tuition.

Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay. Two-year colleges, also known as junior or community colleges , usually offer an associate degree , and four-year colleges usually offer a bachelor's degree.

Often, these are entirely undergraduate institutions, although some have graduate school programs. Four-year institutions in the U.

Until the 20th century, liberal arts, law, medicine, theology, and divinity were about the only form of higher education available in the United States.

While there is no national standard in the United States, the term "university" primarily designates institutions that provide undergraduate and graduate education.

A university typically has as its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate college teaching a liberal arts curriculum, also culminating in a bachelor's degree.

What often distinguishes a university is having, in addition, one or more graduate schools engaged in both teaching graduate classes and in research.

Often these would be called a School of Law or School of Medicine, but may also be called a college of law, or a faculty of law.

An exception is Vincennes University , Indiana , which is styled and chartered as a "university" even though almost all of its academic programs lead only to two-year associate degrees.

In one unique case, Boston College and Boston University , the former located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts and the latter located in Boston, Massachusetts, are completely separate institutions.

Usage of the terms varies among the states. In , for example, Georgia changed all of its four-year institutions previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its vocational technology schools to technical colleges.

The terms "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for an American institution of higher education. In colloquial use, they are still referred to as "college" when referring to their undergraduate studies.

The term college is also, as in the United Kingdom, used for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally organized on academic rather than residential lines.

For example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be briefly referred to as the college such as The College of the University of Chicago , Harvard College at Harvard , or Columbia College at Columbia while at others, such as the University of California, Berkeley , each of the faculties may be called a "college" the "college of engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth.

There exist other variants for historical reasons; for example, Duke University , which was called Trinity College until the s, still calls its main undergraduate subdivision Trinity College of Arts and Sciences.

Some American universities, such as Princeton , Rice , and Yale have established residential colleges sometimes, as at Harvard , the first to establish such a system in the s, known as houses along the lines of Oxford or Cambridge.

Many U. This is exemplified by the creation of new colleges at Ivy League schools such as Yale University [43] and Princeton University , [44] and efforts to strengthen the contribution of the residential colleges to student education, including through a taskforce at Princeton on residential colleges.

The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States were graduates of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.

The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities — they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology.

Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were used to — small communities, housing and feeding their students, with instruction from residential tutors as in the United Kingdom, described above.

The leaders of Harvard College which granted America's first degrees in might have thought of their college as the first of many residential colleges that would grow up into a New Cambridge university.

However, over time, few new colleges were founded there, and Harvard grew and added higher faculties. Eventually, it changed its title to university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" have arisen across the United States.

In a survey of more than 2, college students in 33 states and different campuses, the U. By comparison, the group says that's the equivalent of 39 percent of tuition and fees at a community college, and 14 percent of tuition and fees at a four-year public university.

In addition to private colleges and universities, the U. A movement had arisen to bring a form of more practical higher education to the masses, as " The act was eventually extended to allow all states that had remained with the Union during the American Civil War , and eventually all states, to establish such institutions.

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The term "college" in Singapore is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades 11—12 in the American system.

The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees. Institutions offering diplomas are called " polytechnics ", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.

Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges.

These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to as "colleges".

Further education FE colleges and sixth form colleges are institutions providing further education to students over Some of these also provide higher education courses see below.

Eton College and Winchester College. In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic faculties or departments within a university.

Traditionally the distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers the same as some universities on behalf of its colleges, [26] and many of the colleges of the University of London holding full degree awarding powers and being effectively universities.

Most colleges, however, do not hold their own degree awarding powers and continue to offer higher education courses that are validated by universities or other institutions that can award degrees.

Overall, this means over two thirds of state-supported higher education providers in England are colleges of one form or another. Colleges within universities vary immensely in their responsibilities.

The large constituent colleges of the University of London are effectively universities in their own right; colleges in some universities, including those of the University of the Arts London and smaller colleges of the University of London , run their own degree courses but do not award degrees; those at the University of Roehampton provide accommodation and pastoral care as well as delivering the teaching on university courses; those at Oxford and Cambridge deliver some teaching on university courses as well as providing accommodation and pastoral care; and those in Durham , Kent , Lancaster and York provide accommodation and pastoral care but do not normally participate in formal teaching.

The legal status of these colleges also varies widely, with University of London colleges being independent corporations and recognised bodies, Oxbridge colleges, colleges of the University of the Highlands and Islands UHI and some Durham colleges being independent corporations and listed bodies, most Durham colleges being owned by the university but still listed bodies, and those of other collegiate universities not having formal recognition.

When applying for undergraduate courses through UCAS , University of London colleges are treated as independent providers, colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and UHI are treated as locations within the universities that can be selected by specifying a 'campus code' in addition to selecting the university, and colleges of other universities are not recognised.

A university college is an independent institution with the power to award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university status.

University College is a protected title that can only be used with permission, although note that University College London , University College, Oxford and University College, Durham are colleges within their respective universities and not university colleges in the case of UCL holding full degree awarding powers that set it above a university college , while University College Birmingham is a university in its own right and also not a university college.

In the United States, there are over colleges and universities. Americans "go to college" after high school , regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university.

Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education.

Students must pay for college before taking classes. Some borrow the money via loans, and some students fund their educations with cash, scholarships, grants, or some combination of these payment methods.

For state-owned schools called "public" universities , the subsidy was given to the college, with the student benefiting from lower tuition.

Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay. Two-year colleges, also known as junior or community colleges , usually offer an associate degree , and four-year colleges usually offer a bachelor's degree.

Often, these are entirely undergraduate institutions, although some have graduate school programs. Four-year institutions in the U.

Until the 20th century, liberal arts, law, medicine, theology, and divinity were about the only form of higher education available in the United States.

While there is no national standard in the United States, the term "university" primarily designates institutions that provide undergraduate and graduate education.

A university typically has as its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate college teaching a liberal arts curriculum, also culminating in a bachelor's degree.

What often distinguishes a university is having, in addition, one or more graduate schools engaged in both teaching graduate classes and in research.

Often these would be called a School of Law or School of Medicine, but may also be called a college of law, or a faculty of law.

An exception is Vincennes University , Indiana , which is styled and chartered as a "university" even though almost all of its academic programs lead only to two-year associate degrees.

In one unique case, Boston College and Boston University , the former located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts and the latter located in Boston, Massachusetts, are completely separate institutions.

Usage of the terms varies among the states. In , for example, Georgia changed all of its four-year institutions previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its vocational technology schools to technical colleges.

The terms "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for an American institution of higher education.

In colloquial use, they are still referred to as "college" when referring to their undergraduate studies. The term college is also, as in the United Kingdom, used for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally organized on academic rather than residential lines.

For example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be briefly referred to as the college such as The College of the University of Chicago , Harvard College at Harvard , or Columbia College at Columbia while at others, such as the University of California, Berkeley , each of the faculties may be called a "college" the "college of engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth.

There exist other variants for historical reasons; for example, Duke University , which was called Trinity College until the s, still calls its main undergraduate subdivision Trinity College of Arts and Sciences.

Some American universities, such as Princeton , Rice , and Yale have established residential colleges sometimes, as at Harvard , the first to establish such a system in the s, known as houses along the lines of Oxford or Cambridge.

Many U. This is exemplified by the creation of new colleges at Ivy League schools such as Yale University [43] and Princeton University , [44] and efforts to strengthen the contribution of the residential colleges to student education, including through a taskforce at Princeton on residential colleges.

The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States were graduates of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.

The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities — they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology.

Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were used to — small communities, housing and feeding their students, with instruction from residential tutors as in the United Kingdom, described above.

The leaders of Harvard College which granted America's first degrees in might have thought of their college as the first of many residential colleges that would grow up into a New Cambridge university.

However, over time, few new colleges were founded there, and Harvard grew and added higher faculties.

Eventually, it changed its title to university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" have arisen across the United States. In a survey of more than 2, college students in 33 states and different campuses, the U.

By comparison, the group says that's the equivalent of 39 percent of tuition and fees at a community college, and 14 percent of tuition and fees at a four-year public university.

In addition to private colleges and universities, the U. A movement had arisen to bring a form of more practical higher education to the masses, as " The act was eventually extended to allow all states that had remained with the Union during the American Civil War , and eventually all states, to establish such institutions.

Most of the colleges established under the Morrill Act have since become full universities, and some are among the elite of the world. The term college is mainly used by private or independent secondary schools with Advanced Level Upper 6th formers and also Polytechnic Colleges which confer diplomas only.

A student can complete secondary education International General Certificate of Secondary Education, IGCSE at 16 years and proceed straight to a poly-technical college or they can proceed to Advanced level 16 to 19 years and obtain a General Certificate of Education GCE certificate which enables them to enrol at a university, provided they have good grades.

Alternatively, with lower grades the GCE certificate holders will have an added advantage over their GCSE counterparts if they choose to enrol at a poly-technical college.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about educational colleges. For other uses, see College disambiguation.

Higher education institution. Main article: College corporation. Main article: Sixth form college. See also: Category:Higher education by country.

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See also: Third-level education in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Education in the Netherlands. Main article: Higher education in the Philippines.

Main article: Education in Portugal. Main article: Higher education in the United States. Archived from the original on 4 September Cambridge Dictionary Online.

City of Paris. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 20 July University of Guelph. Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 30 July Education UK.

British Council. Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 28 August Archived from the original on 18 September Register of HE providers.

Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on 11 September Archived from the original on 26 August O'Hara 20 December The Collegiate Way.

Archived from the original on 31 July Archived from the original on 31 August Archived from the original XLS on 19 September University of the Highlands and Islands.

Archived from the original on 20 September University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 6 April American Institutes for Research.

Archived from the original on 30 December Archived from the original on 24 September Because Taxpayer Support Goes Down".

Should colleges get back to basics? CQ Researcher. Congressional Quarterly. Retrieved 17 January In this respect, the Durham colleges are closer in structure to the residential colleges that have been established in the United States and elsewhere in recent years than are the independent corporations of Oxford and Cambridge.

Yale University. Archived from the original on 6 May Princeton University. Archived from the original on 11 May Planning for Princeton's Future.

Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 14 September The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 26 April Only about a third of young adults today receive a bachelor's degree.

National Bureau of Economic Research. Archived PDF from the original on 6 May Archived from the original PDF on 31 March Students with grades just above a threshold for admissions eligibility at a large public university in Florida are much more likely to attend any university than below-threshold students.

The marginal admission yields earnings gains of 22 percent between eight and fourteen years after high school completion.

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Alexander Hamilton described the Founding Fathers' view of how electors would be chosen:. A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated [tasks].

They assumed this would take place district by district. That plan was carried out by many states until the s. For example, in Massachusetts in , the rule stated "the people shall vote by ballot, on which shall be designated who is voted for as an Elector for the district.

Instead they voted for their local elector, whom they trusted later to cast a responsible vote for president. Some states reasoned that the favorite presidential candidate among the people in their state would have a much better chance if all of the electors selected by their state were sure to vote the same way—a "general ticket" of electors pledged to a party candidate.

They became "voluntary party lackeys and intellectual non-entities. When James Madison and Hamilton, two of the most important architects of the Electoral College, saw this strategy being taken by some states, they protested strongly.

Madison and Hamilton both made it clear this approach violated the spirit of the Constitution. According to Hamilton, the selection of the president should be "made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station [of president].

He also used the term "deliberate". Hamilton considered a pre-pledged elector to violate the spirit of Article II of the Constitution insofar as such electors could make no "analysis" or "deliberate" concerning the candidates.

Madison agreed entirely, saying that when the Constitution was written, all of its authors assumed individual electors would be elected in their districts, and it was inconceivable that a "general ticket" of electors dictated by a state would supplant the concept.

Madison wrote to George Hay:. The Founding Fathers assumed that each elector would be elected by the citizens of a district, and that elector was to be free to analyze and deliberate regarding who is best suited to be president.

Each state government was free to have its own plan for selecting its electors, and the Constitution does not explicitly require states to popularly elect their electors.

Several methods for selecting electors are described below. Madison and Hamilton were so upset by what they saw as a distortion of the original intent that they advocated a constitutional amendment to prevent anything other than the district plan: "the election of Presidential Electors by districts, is an amendment very proper to be brought forward," Madison told George Hay in He actually drafted an amendment to the Constitution mandating the district plan for selecting electors.

In , at-large popular vote, the winner-take-all method, began with Pennsylvania and Maryland. Massachusetts, Virginia and Delaware used a district plan by popular vote, and state legislatures chose in the five other states participating in the election Connecticut, Georgia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and South Carolina.

New York's legislature deadlocked and abstained; North Carolina and Rhode Island had not yet ratified the Constitution.

By , Virginia and Rhode Island voted at large; Kentucky, Maryland, and North Carolina voted popularly by district; and eleven states voted by state legislature.

Beginning in there was a definite trend towards the winner-take-all system for statewide popular vote.

By , only South Carolina legislatively chose its electors, and it abandoned the method after States using popular vote by district have included ten states from all regions of the country.

Since , statewide winner-take-all popular voting for electors has been the almost universal practice.

After the initial estimates agreed to in the original Constitution, Congressional and Electoral College reapportionment was made according to a decennial census to reflect population changes, modified by counting three-fifths of persons held as slaves for apportionment of representation.

Beginning with the first census, Electoral College votes repeatedly eclipsed the electoral basis supporting slave power in the choice of the U.

At the Constitutional Convention , the Electoral College was authorized by a majority of 49 votes for northern states in the process of abolishing slavery and 42 votes for slave-holding states including Delaware.

In the event, the first presidential election did not include Electoral College votes for unratified Rhode Island 3 and North Carolina 7 , nor for New York 8 which reported too late; the Northern majority was 38 to While Southern state Congressional delegations were boosted by an average of one-third during each decade of this period, [56] the margin of free-soil Electoral College majorities were still maintained over this entire early republic and Antebellum period.

The seats that the South gained from a slave bonus were evenly distributed between the parties of the period.

At the Second Party System — the emerging Jacksonians gained just 0. The Three-fifths rule of apportionment in the Electoral College eventually resulted in three counter-factual losses in the sixty-eight years from — With that clause, the slaveholding states gave up two-fifths of their slave population in federal apportionment, giving a margin of victory to John Adams in his election defeating Thomas Jefferson.

Wilentz concludes that it is a myth to say that the Electoral College was a pro-slavery ploy. In , the presidential selection was thrown into the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams was chosen over Andrew Jackson, even though Jackson had a larger popular vote plurality.

Then Andrew Jackson won in , but that second campaign would also have been lost if the count in the Electoral College were by citizen-only apportionment.

Scholars conclude that in the race, Jackson benefited materially from the Three-fifths clause by providing his margin of victory. The impact of the Three-fifths clause in both Jefferson's first and Jackson's first presidential elections was significant because each of them launched sustained Congressional party majorities over several Congresses, as well as presidential party eras.

Besides the Constitutional slavery provisions prohibiting Congress from regulating foreign or domestic slave trade before and a positive requirement for states to return escaped "persons held to service", [63] legal scholar Akhil Reed Amar argues that the Electoral College was originally advocated by slave holders in an additional effort to defend slavery.

In the Congressional apportionment provided in the text of the Constitution with its Three-Fifths Compromise estimate, "Virginia emerged as the big winner [with] more than a quarter of the [votes] needed to win an election in the first round [for Washington's first presidential election in ].

Supporters of the Electoral College have provided many counterarguments to the charges that it defended slavery. Abraham Lincoln , the president who helped abolish slavery, won an Electoral College majority in despite winning less than 40 percent of the national popular vote.

Dave Benner argues that, although the additional population of slave states from the Three-Fifths Compromise allowed Jefferson to defeat Adams in , Jefferson's margin of victory would have been wider had the entire slave population been counted.

Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment allows for a state's representation in the House of Representatives to be reduced if the state denies the right to vote to any male citizen aged 21 or older, unless on the basis of "participation in rebellion, or other crime".

The amount of the reduction is to be in keeping with the proportion of such people denied a vote. This amendment refers to "the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States" among other elections, the only place in the Constitution mentioning electors being selected by popular vote.

On May 8, , during a debate on the Fourteenth Amendment, Thaddeus Stevens , the leader of the Republicans in the House of Representatives, delivered a speech on the amendment's intent.

Regarding Section 2, he said: [70]. The second section I consider the most important in the article. It fixes the basis of representation in Congress.

If any State shall exclude any of her adult male citizens from the elective franchise, or abridge that right, she shall forfeit her right to representation in the same proportion.

The effect of this provision will be either to compel the States to grant universal suffrage or so shear them of their power as to keep them forever in a hopeless minority in the national Government, both legislative and executive.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [ sic ] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Since , federal law has provided that the electors in all the states and, since , in the District of Columbia meet "on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment" to vote for president and vice president.

Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, all elected and appointed federal officials are prohibited from being electors.

After the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Congress. The votes of the electors are opened during a joint session of Congress , held in the first week of January, and read aloud by the incumbent vice president, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate.

If any person receives an absolute majority of electoral votes, that person is declared the winner.

Even though the aggregate national popular vote is calculated by state officials, media organizations, and the Federal Election Commission , the people only indirectly elect the president.

The president and vice president of the United States are elected by the Electoral College, which consists of electors from the fifty states and Washington, D.

Electors are selected state-by-state, as determined by the laws of each state. Since the election of , [76] most states have appointed their electors winner-take-all , based on the statewide popular vote on Election Day.

Maine and Nebraska are the only exceptions as both states use the congressional district method, Maine since and in Nebraska since The slate of electors that represent the winning ticket in a state or Washington, D.

Electors are nominated by a party and pledged to vote for their party's candidate. Many states require an elector to vote for the candidate to which the elector is pledged, and most electors do regardless, but some " faithless electors " have voted for other candidates or refrained from voting.

A candidate must receive an absolute majority of electoral votes currently to win the presidency or the vice presidency.

If no candidate receives a majority in the election for president or vice president, the election is determined via a contingency procedure established by the Twelfth Amendment.

In such a situation, the House chooses one of the top three presidential electoral vote winners as the president, while the Senate chooses one of the top two vice presidential electoral vote winners as vice president.

A state's number of electors equals the number of representatives plus two electors for the senators the state has in the United States Congress.

Based on the census, each representative represented on average , individuals. Under the Twenty-third Amendment , Washington, D.

Because the least populous state Wyoming , according to the census has three electors, D. Even if D. Based on its population per electoral vote, D.

Currently, there are electors, based on representatives, senators from the fifty states and three electors from Washington, D. The custom of allowing recognized political parties to select a slate of prospective electors developed early.

In contemporary practice, each presidential-vice presidential ticket has an associated slate of potential electors.

Then on Election Day, the voters select a ticket and thereby select the associated electors. Candidates for elector are nominated by state chapters of nationally oriented political parties in the months prior to Election Day.

In some states, the electors are nominated by voters in primaries the same way other presidential candidates are nominated. In some states, such as Oklahoma , Virginia , and North Carolina , electors are nominated in party conventions.

In Pennsylvania , the campaign committee of each candidate names their respective electoral college candidates an attempt to discourage faithless electors.

Varying by state, electors may also be elected by state legislatures or appointed by the parties themselves. Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution requires each state legislature to determine how electors for the state are to be chosen, but it disqualifies any person holding a federal office, either elected or appointed, from being an elector.

However, Congress may remove this disqualification by a two-thirds vote in each House. All states currently choose presidential electors by popular vote.

Except for eight states, the "short ballot" is used. The short ballot displays the names of the candidates for president and vice president, rather than the names of prospective electors.

The Supreme Court previously upheld the power for a state to choose electors on the basis of congressional districts, holding that states possess plenary power to decide how electors are appointed in McPherson v.

Blacker , U. The Tuesday following the first Monday in November has been fixed as the day for holding federal elections, called the Election Day.

The Certificates of Ascertainment are mandated to carry the state seal and the signature of the governor or mayor of D. The Electoral College never meets as one body.

Electors meet in their respective state capitals electors for the District of Columbia meet within the District on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December, at which time they cast their electoral votes on separate ballots for president and vice president.

Although procedures in each state vary slightly, the electors generally follow a similar series of steps, and the Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the procedures the states follow.

The meeting is opened by the election certification official — often that state's secretary of state or equivalent — who reads the Certificate of Ascertainment.

This document sets forth who was chosen to cast the electoral votes. The attendance of the electors is taken and any vacancies are noted in writing.

The next step is the selection of a president or chairman of the meeting, sometimes also with a vice chairman. The electors sometimes choose a secretary, often not himself an elector, to take the minutes of the meeting.

In many states, political officials give short speeches at this point in the proceedings. When the time for balloting arrives, the electors choose one or two people to act as tellers.

Some states provide for the placing in nomination of a candidate to receive the electoral votes the candidate for president of the political party of the electors.

Each elector submits a written ballot with the name of a candidate for president. Ballot formats vary between the states: in New Jersey for example, the electors cast ballots by checking the name of the candidate on a pre-printed card; in North Carolina , the electors write the name of the candidate on a blank card.

The tellers count the ballots and announce the result. The next step is the casting of the vote for vice president, which follows a similar pattern.

Each Certificate of Vote must be signed by all of the electors and a Certificate of Ascertainment must be attached to each of the Certificates of Vote.

Each Certificate of Vote must include the names of those who received an electoral vote for either the office of president or of vice president.

The electors certify the Certificates of Vote, and copies of the Certificates are then sent in the following fashion: [97].

A staff member of the President of the Senate collects the Certificates of Vote as they arrive and prepares them for the joint session of the Congress.

The Certificates are arranged — unopened — in alphabetical order and placed in two special mahogany boxes.

Alabama through Missouri including the District of Columbia are placed in one box and Montana through Wyoming are placed in the other box.

An elector votes for each office, but at least one of these votes president or vice president must be cast for a person who is not a resident of the same state as that elector.

Thirty-three states plus the District of Columbia have laws against faithless electors, [] which were first enforced after the election, where ten electors voted or attempted to vote contrary to their pledges.

Faithless electors have never changed the outcome of a U. Altogether, 23, electors have taken part in the Electoral College as of the election; only electors have cast votes for someone other than their party's nominee.

Sherman died. While faithless electors have never changed the outcome of any presidential election, there are two occasions where the vice presidential race outcome has been influenced by faithless electors:.

Some constitutional scholars argued that state restrictions would be struck down if challenged based on Article II and the Twelfth Amendment.

In Ray v. Blair , U. As stated in the ruling, electors are acting as a functionary of the state, not the federal government.

In Chiafalo v. Washington , U. The Twelfth Amendment mandates Congress assemble in joint session to count the electoral votes and declare the winners of the election.

House of Representatives. The vice president and the Speaker of the House sit at the podium, with the vice president in the seat of the Speaker of the House.

Senate pages bring in the two mahogany boxes containing each state's certified vote and place them on tables in front of the senators and representatives.

Each house appoints two tellers to count the vote normally one member of each political party. Relevant portions of the certificate of vote are read for each state, in alphabetical order.

Members of Congress can object to any state's vote count, provided objection is presented in writing and is signed by at least one member of each house of Congress.

An objection supported by at least one senator and one representative will be followed by the suspension of the joint session and by separate debates and votes in each House of Congress; after both Houses deliberate on the objection, the joint session is resumed.

A state's certificate of vote can be rejected only if both Houses of Congress vote to accept the objection, meaning the votes from the State in question are not counted.

Individual votes can also be rejected, and are also not counted. In , all of the votes from Louisiana and Tennessee were rejected, and in , all of the votes from Arkansas and Louisiana plus three of the eleven electoral votes from Georgia were rejected.

Objections to the electoral vote count are rarely raised, although it did occur during the vote count in after the close presidential election between Governor George W.

Gore, who as vice president was required to preside over his own Electoral College defeat by five electoral votes , denied the objections, all of which were raised by only several representatives and would have favored his candidacy, after no senators would agree to jointly object.

Objections were again raised in the vote count of the elections, and on that occasion the document was presented by one representative and one senator.

Although the joint session was suspended, the objections were quickly disposed of and rejected by both Houses of Congress. If there are no objections or all objections are overruled, the presiding officer simply includes a state's votes, as declared in the certificate of vote, in the official tally.

After the certificates from all states are read and the respective votes are counted, the presiding officer simply announces the final state of the vote.

This announcement concludes the joint session and formalizes the recognition of the president-elect and of the vice president-elect.

The senators then depart from the House Chamber. The final tally is printed in the Senate and House journals. The Twelfth Amendment requires the House of Representatives to go into session immediately to vote for a president if no candidate for president receives a majority of the electoral votes since , of the electoral votes.

In this event, the House of Representatives is limited to choosing from among the three candidates who received the most electoral votes for president.

Each state delegation votes en bloc — each delegation having a single vote; the District of Columbia does not get to vote. A candidate must receive an absolute majority of state delegation votes i.

Additionally, delegations from at least two thirds of all the states must be present for voting to take place. The House continues balloting until it elects a president.

If no candidate for vice president receives an absolute majority of electoral votes, then the Senate must go into session to elect a vice president.

The Senate is limited to choosing from the two candidates who received the most electoral votes for vice president. Normally this would mean two candidates, one less than the number of candidates available in the House vote.

However, the text is written in such a way that all candidates with the most and second most electoral votes are eligible for the Senate election — this number could theoretically be larger than two.

The Senate votes in the normal manner in this case i. However, two-thirds of the senators must be present for voting to take place.

Additionally, the Twelfth Amendment states a "majority of the whole number" of senators currently 51 of is necessary for election.

The only time the Senate chose the vice president was in In that instance, the Senate adopted an alphabetical roll call and voting aloud.

The rules further stated, "[I]f a majority of the number of senators shall vote for either the said Richard M. Johnson or Francis Granger , he shall be declared by the presiding officer of the Senate constitutionally elected Vice President of the United States"; the Senate chose Johnson.

Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment specifies if the House of Representatives has not chosen a president-elect in time for the inauguration noon EST on January 20 , then the vice president-elect becomes acting president until the House selects a president.

Under the Presidential Succession Act of , the Speaker of the House would become acting president until either the House selects a president or the Senate selects a vice president.

Neither of these situations has ever occurred. Before the advent of the short ballot in the early 20th century, as described above, the most common means of electing the presidential electors was through the general ticket.

The general ticket is quite similar to the current system and is often confused with it. In the general ticket, voters cast ballots for individuals running for presidential elector while in the short ballot, voters cast ballots for an entire slate of electors.

In the general ticket, the state canvass would report the number of votes cast for each candidate for elector, a complicated process in states like New York with multiple positions to fill.

Both the general ticket and the short ballot are often considered at-large or winner-takes-all voting. The short ballot was adopted by the various states at different times; it was adopted for use by North Carolina and Ohio in Alabama was still using the general ticket as late as and was one of the last states to switch to the short ballot.

The question of the extent to which state constitutions may constrain the legislature's choice of a method of choosing electors has been touched on in two U.

Supreme Court cases. In McPherson v. In Bush v. On the other hand, three dissenting justices in Bush v. Gore , U. In the earliest presidential elections, state legislative choice was the most common method of choosing electors.

A majority of the state legislatures selected presidential electors in both 9 of 15 and 10 of 16 , and half of them did so in In that election, Andrew Jackson lost in spite of having plurality of the popular vote and the number of electoral votes representing them, [] but six state legislatures chose electors that overturned that result.

Some state legislatures simply chose electors, while other states used a hybrid method in which state legislatures chose from a group of electors elected by popular vote.

Legislative appointment was brandished as a possibility in the election. Had the recount continued, the Florida legislature was prepared to appoint the Republican slate of electors to avoid missing the federal safe-harbor deadline for choosing electors.

The Constitution gives each state legislature the power to decide how its state's electors are chosen [] and it can be easier and cheaper for a state legislature to simply appoint a slate of electors than to create a legislative framework for holding elections to determine the electors.

As noted above, the two situations in which legislative choice has been used since the Civil War have both been because there was not enough time or money to prepare for an election.

However, appointment by state legislature can have negative consequences: bicameral legislatures can deadlock more easily than the electorate.

This is precisely what happened to New York in when the legislature failed to appoint any electors. Another method used early in U. By this method, voters in each district would cast their ballots for the electors they supported and the winner in each district would become the elector.

This was similar to how states are currently separated into congressional districts. However, the difference stems from the fact that every state always had two more electoral districts than congressional districts.

As with congressional districts, moreover, this method is vulnerable to gerrymandering. In a proportional system, electors would be selected in proportion to the votes cast for their candidate or party, rather than being selected by the statewide plurality vote.

There are two versions of the congressional district method: one has been implemented in Maine and Nebraska; another has been proposed in Virginia.

Under the implemented congressional district method, the electoral votes go to the winner of a plurality of the popular vote within each of the states' congressional districts ; the statewide popular vote winner receives two additional electoral votes.

While this method may result in a more proportional allocation of electors, this is not necessarily the case. For example, in , George H.

In , a different version of the congressional district method was proposed in Virginia. This version would distribute Virginia's electoral votes based on the popular vote winner within each of Virginia's congressional districts; the two statewide electoral votes would be awarded based on which candidate won the most congressional districts, rather than on who won Virginia's statewide popular vote.

The congressional district method can more easily be implemented than other alternatives to the winner-takes-all method, in view of major party resistance to relatively enabling third parties under the proportional method.

State legislation is sufficient to use this method. Because candidates have an incentive to campaign in competitive districts, with a district plan, candidates have an incentive to actively campaign in over thirty states versus seven "swing" states.

Of the 43 multi-district states whose electoral votes could be affected by the congressional district method, only Maine 4 EV and Nebraska 5 EV currently utilize this allocation method.

Nebraska has used the congressional district method since the election of The congressional district method allows a state the chance to split its electoral votes between multiple candidates.

Prior to , neither Maine nor Nebraska had ever split their electoral votes. In , Republicans in Pennsylvania, who controlled both houses of the legislature as well as the governorship, put forward a plan to change the state's winner-takes-all system to a congressional district method system.

Pennsylvania had voted for the Democratic candidate in the five previous presidential elections, so some saw this as an attempt to take away Democratic electoral votes.

The district plan would have awarded him 11 of its 21 electoral votes, a Arguments between proponents and opponents of the current electoral system include four separate but related topics: indirect election, disproportionate voting power by some states, the winner-takes-all distribution method as chosen by 48 of the 50 states , and federalism.

Arguments against the Electoral College in common discussion focus mostly on the allocation of the voting power among the states.

Gary Bugh's research of congressional debates over proposed constitutional amendments to abolish the Electoral College reveals reform opponents have often appealed to a traditional republican version of representation, whereas reform advocates have tended to reference a more democratic view.

The elections of , , , and produced an Electoral College winner who did not receive at least a plurality of the nationwide popular vote.

When no candidate received a majority of electoral votes in , the election was decided by the House of Representatives and so could be considered distinct from the latter four elections in which all of the states had popular selection of electors.

Opponents of the Electoral College claim such outcomes do not logically follow the normative concept of how a democratic system should function.

One view is the Electoral College violates the principle of political equality, since presidential elections are not decided by the one-person one-vote principle.

Supporters of the Electoral College argue candidates must build a popular base that is geographically broader and more diverse in voter interests than either a simple national plurality or majority.

Neither is this feature attributable to having intermediate elections of presidents, caused instead by the winner-takes-all method of allocating each state's slate of electors.

Allocation of electors in proportion to the state's popular vote could reduce this effect. Senate, and for statewide allocation of electoral votes, do not ignore voters in less populated areas.

Elections where the winning candidate loses the national popular vote typically result when the winner builds the requisite configuration of states and thus captures their electoral votes by small margins, but the losing candidate secures large voter margins in the remaining states.

In this case, the very large margins secured by the losing candidate in the other states would aggregate to a plurality of the ballots cast nationally.

However, commentators question the legitimacy of this national popular vote. They point out that the national popular vote observed under the Electoral College system does not reflect the popular vote observed under a National Popular Vote system, as each electoral institution produces different incentives for, and strategy choices by, presidential campaigns.

Conversely, the institutional structure of a national popular vote system would encourage candidates to pursue voter turnout wherever votes could be found, even in "safe" states they are already expected to win, and in "safe" states they have no hope of winning.

According to this criticism, the Electoral College encourages political campaigners to focus on a few so-called "swing states" while ignoring the rest of the country.

Populous states in which pre-election poll results show no clear favorite are inundated with campaign visits, saturation television advertising, get-out-the-vote efforts by party organizers, and debates, while "four out of five" voters in the national election are "absolutely ignored", according to one assessment.

In contrast, states with large populations such as California , Texas , and New York , have in recent elections been considered "safe" for a particular party — Democratic for California and New York and Republican for Texas — and therefore campaigns spend less time and money there.

Many small states are also considered to be "safe" for one of the two political parties and are also generally ignored by campaigners: of the 13 smallest states, six are reliably Democratic, six are reliably Republican, and only New Hampshire is considered as a swing state, according to critic George C.

Edwards III in Except in closely fought swing states, voter turnout is largely insignificant due to entrenched political party domination in most states.

The Electoral College decreases the advantage a political party or campaign might gain for encouraging voters to turn out, except in those swing states.

The differences in turnout between swing states and non-swing states under the current electoral college system suggest that replacing the Electoral College with direct election by popular vote would likely increase turnout and participation significantly.

According to this criticism, the electoral college reduces elections to a mere count of electors for a particular state, and, as a result, it obscures any voting problems within a particular state.

For example, if a particular state blocks some groups from voting, perhaps by voter suppression methods such as imposing reading tests, poll taxes, registration requirements, or legally disfranchising specific minority groups, then voting inside that state would be reduced, but as the state's electoral count would be the same, disenfranchisement has no effect on the overall electoral tally.

Critics contend that such disenfranchisement is partially obscured by the Electoral College. A related argument is the Electoral College may have a dampening effect on voter turnout: there is no incentive for states to reach out to more of its citizens to include them in elections because the state's electoral count remains fixed in any event.

According to this view, if elections were by popular vote, then states would be motivated to include more citizens in elections since the state would then have more political clout nationally.

Critics contend the electoral college system insulates states from negative publicity as well as possible federal penalties for disenfranching subgroups of citizens.

Legal scholars Akhil Amar and Vikram Amar have argued that the original Electoral College compromise was enacted partially because it enabled Southern states to disenfranchise their slave populations.

They noted that James Madison believed the question of counting slaves had presented a serious challenge, but that "the substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections.

The founders' system also encouraged the continued disfranchisement of women. In a direct national election system, any state that gave women the vote would automatically have doubled its national clout.

Under the Electoral College, however, a state had no such incentive to increase the franchise; as with slaves, what mattered was how many women lived in a state, not how many were empowered By contrast, a well-designed direct election system could spur states to get out the vote.

Constitutionally, only U. Virgin Islands , American Samoa , and Guam , do not have a vote in presidential elections. Researchers have variously attempted to measure which states' voters have the greatest impact in such an indirect election.

Each state gets a minimum of three electoral votes, regardless of population, which gives low-population states a disproportionate number of electors per capita.

Countervailing analyses which do take into consideration the sizes of the electoral voting blocs, such as the Banzhaf power index BPI model based on probability theory lead to very different conclusions about voters relative power.

Banzhaf III who developed the Banzhaf power index determined that a voter in the state of New York had, on average, 3. More empirically based models of voting yield results that seem to favor larger states less.

In practice, the winner-take-all manner of allocating a state's electors generally decreases the importance of minor parties. The United States of America is a federal republic that consists of component states.

Proponents of the current system argue the collective opinion of even a small state merits attention at the federal level greater than that given to a small, though numerically equivalent, portion of a very populous state.

The system also allows each state the freedom, within constitutional bounds, to design its own laws on voting and enfranchisement without an undue incentive to maximize the number of votes cast.

For many years early in the nation's history, up until the Jacksonian Era , many states appointed their electors by a vote of the state legislature , and proponents argue that, in the end, the election of the president must still come down to the decisions of each state, or the federal nature of the United States will give way to a single massive, centralized government.

In his book A More Perfect Constitution , Professor Larry Sabato elaborated on this advantage of the Electoral College, arguing to "mend it, don't end it," in part because of its usefulness in forcing candidates to pay attention to lightly populated states and reinforcing the role of states in federalism.

Instead of decreasing the power of minority groups by depressing voter turnout, proponents argue that by making the votes of a given state an all-or-nothing affair, minority groups can provide the critical edge that allows a candidate to win.

This encourages candidates to court a wide variety of such minorities and advocacy groups. Proponents of the Electoral College see its negative effect on third parties as beneficial.

They argue that the two party system has provided stability because it encourages a delayed adjustment during times of rapid political and cultural change.

They believe it protects the most powerful office in the country from control by what these proponents view as regional minorities until they can moderate their views to win broad, long-term support across the nation.

Advocates of a national popular vote for president suggest that this effect would also be true in popular vote elections. According to this argument, the fact the Electoral College is made up of real people instead of mere numbers allows for human judgment and flexibility to make a decision, if it happens that a candidate dies or becomes legally disabled around the time of the election.

Advocates of the current system argue that human electors would be in a better position to choose a suitable replacement than the general voting public: according to this view, electors could act decisively during the critical time interval between when ballot choices become fixed in state ballots [] until mid-December when the electors formally cast their ballots.

In the election of , defeated Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley died during this time interval, which resulted in disarray for the Democratic Party , who also supported Greeley, but 63 of the 66 the Greeley electors were able to split their votes for four alternate candidates.

In the election of , vice president Sherman died six days before the election, when it was far too late for states to remove his name from their ballots; accordingly, Sherman was listed posthumously, with the eight electoral votes he would have received being cast instead for Nicholas Murray Butler.

Some supporters of the Electoral College note that it isolates the impact of any election fraud, or other such problems, to the state where it occurs.

It prevents instances where a party dominant in one state may dishonestly inflate the votes for a candidate and thereby affect the election outcome.

For instance, recounts occur only on a state-by-state basis, not nationwide. Most polls since have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote, instead of by the Electoral College, [] [] though polls taken since have shown an increase in support for keeping the Electoral College.

The closest the United States has come to abolishing the Electoral College occurred during the 91st Congress — However, Nixon had received only , more popular votes than Humphrey, Representative Emanuel Celler D—New York , chairman of the House Judiciary Committee , responded to public concerns over the disparity between the popular vote and electoral vote by introducing House Joint Resolution , a proposed Constitutional amendment that would have replaced the Electoral College with a simpler plurality system based on the national popular vote.

The word "pair" was defined as "two persons who shall have consented to the joining of their names as candidates for the offices of president and vice president.

On October 8, , the New York Times reported that 30 state legislatures were "either certain or likely to approve a constitutional amendment embodying the direct election plan if it passes its final Congressional test in the Senate.

The paper also reported that six other states had yet to state a preference, six were leaning toward opposition, and eight were solidly opposed.

On August 14, , the Senate Judiciary Committee sent its report advocating passage of the proposal to the full Senate.

The Judiciary Committee had approved the proposal by a vote of 11 to 6. Senator Bayh indicated that supporters of the measure were about a dozen votes shy from the 67 needed for the proposal to pass the full Senate.

On September 8, , the Senate commenced openly debating the proposal, [] and the proposal was quickly filibustered. The lead objectors to the proposal were mostly Southern senators and conservatives from small states, both Democrats and Republicans, who argued that abolishing the Electoral College would reduce their states' political influence.

Thereafter, the Senate majority leader, Mike Mansfield of Montana, moved to lay the proposal aside so the Senate could attend to other business.

On March 22, , President Jimmy Carter wrote a letter of reform to Congress that also included his expression of essentially abolishing the Electoral College.

The letter read in part:. My fourth recommendation is that the Congress adopt a Constitutional amendment to provide for direct popular election of the President.

Such an amendment, which would abolish the Electoral College, will ensure that the candidate chosen by the voters actually becomes President.

Under the Electoral College, it is always possible that the winner of the popular vote will not be elected. This has already happened in three elections, , , and In the last election, the result could have been changed by a small shift of votes in Ohio and Hawaii, despite a popular vote difference of 1.

I do not recommend a Constitutional amendment lightly. I think the amendment process must be reserved for an issue of overriding governmental significance.

But the method by which we elect our President is such an issue. I will not be proposing a specific direct election amendment.

I prefer to allow the Congress to proceed with its work without the interruption of a new proposal. President Carter's proposed program for the reform of the Electoral College was very liberal for a modern president during this time, and in some aspects of the package, it went beyond original expectations.

Newspaper reaction to Carter's proposal ranged from some editorials praising the proposal to other editorials, like that in the Chicago Tribune , criticizing the president for proposing the end of the Electoral College.

Bingham D-New York highlighted the danger of the "flawed, outdated mechanism of the Electoral College" by underscoring how a shift of fewer than 10, votes in two key states would have led to President Gerald Ford being reelected despite Jimmy Carter's nationwide 1.

Since January 3, , joint resolutions have been made proposing constitutional amendments that would replace the Electoral College with the popular election of the president and vice president.

The compact will not go into effect until the number of states agreeing to the compact form a majority at least of all electors.

The compact is based on the current rule in Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution, which gives each state legislature the plenary power to determine how it chooses its electors.

Some scholars have suggested that Article I, Section 10, Clause 3 of the Constitution requires congressional consent before the compact could be enforceable; [] thus, any attempted implementation of the compact without congressional consent could face court challenges to its constitutionality.

Others have suggested that the compact's legality was strengthened by Chiafalo v. Washington , in which the Supreme Court upheld the power of states to enforce electors' pledges.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Electoral College United States. This article is about the electoral college of the United States.

For electoral colleges in general, see Electoral college. For other uses and regions, see Electoral college disambiguation.

United States. Federal government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.

Political parties. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Other countries. Further information: United States congressional apportionment.

Main article: Faithless elector. Main article: Electoral Count Act. Further information: Contingent election. See also: Electoral vote changes between United States presidential elections.

See also: List of United States presidential elections in which the winner lost the popular vote. Main article: Swing state.

See also: Duverger's law and Causes of a two-party system. Main article: Two party system. Politics portal United States portal.

National Archives. December 23, Retrieved September 27, March 6, July 7, Retrieved July 7, There are 33 states plus the District of Columbia that require electors to vote for a pledged candidate.

Most of those states 16 plus DC nonetheless do not provide for any penalty or any mechanism to prevent the deviant vote from counting as cast.

Congressional Research Service. November 15, September 16, Retrieved September 18, October 6, CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.

Retrieved September 4, Retrieved September 3,

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